Cements began to be developed from the start of the
Industrial Revolution (around 1800), used as binder in:
-mortar in masonry construction
-stucco finishing brick buildings in wet climates
-development of strong concretes.
Cements harden because of hydration chemical reactions that occur independently of the mixture's water content. Cements can harden even under water.
Cement is made by heating limestone (calcium carbonate), with small quantities of other materials (such as clay) to 1450 °C and mixed with other ingredients like air entrainers, retarders, waterproofers and coloring agent.
The ingredients for cement production are found all over the world.